Archive for AVS Journal

An “E – Interview” with Chuck Davis, Creator of the ROSHI EEG/Neurofeedback System

An “E – Interview” with Chuck Davis,
Creator of the ROSHI EEG/Neurofeedback System

Editors Note: Within the AVS / light and sound community, Chuck Davis is known for his knowledge and experience in developing brainwave measurement and entrainment systems. I was fortunate to meet Mr. Davis during a Winterbrain conference a few years back and try his ROSHI EEG/Neurofeedback system. Having used other EEG/NFB systems before, I tried the ROSHI, and taking into account the large number of interested people in the room, found achieving the targeted alpha frequency difficult to attain at first, but after a few minutes felt capable of maintaining that frequency easier than on all the other systems. The ROSHI is definitely “user friendly”.

Chuck has developed one of the finest EEG / NFB systems available in the ROSHI and has recently, in conjunction with Ray Wolfe, created an EEG / AVS interface that will certainly en- hance any neurofeedback training session. Before reading Chuck’s replies to those questions, let’s begin with a little background and contact information:

“After having spent a couple of “lifetimes” in aerospace and the music business, looking for an alpha training instrument, I met Hershel Toomim, of BioComp, in 1979. He was develop- ing BioComp system, on an Apple.

We got into some interesting ideas. After hours of rapping, he hired me. Thence came his BioComp 2001. I designed the infrared communications part. Most anytime, one can find me at 1.323.292.2550.”

Q: How did you initially get involved in eeg/neurofeedback? Did you start out in light/sound or biofeedback? When was that?

A:” During the late ’70s, while in the music business, I started hangin’ out with the `consciousness’ crowd, est, Esalen and the Perls gang, Reichian folk and knew the Late Robt Monroe. Experienced and studied his stuff. Hung out w/ Glenn and Lee Perry and their Samadhi Tank, before they went big time. My first “snap” into pure space, no time, was in the tank. While working for Hershel, my intuitions started to make sense to me. One day, at Hershel’s, this guy came in with a Synchro Energizer. The light bulb flashed on. What better way to set the flicker rates than the brain, itself? This new technique is not concerned with sin- gle frequencies, per se, but /any/ total number of stationary frequencies. Well, almost. Ten years ago, while scanning thru patents, to be sure that I wasn’t going to be stepping on any toes.”

Q: What does ROSHI stand for?

A: “In zendos, there’s a robed fellow that walks around with a little stick. If, during your “sesshin”, you should start dozing off to la la land, you get to experience a whack from that stick. He’s called the Roshi; same as the Maharishi. A teacher/trainer/guru who’s been there, done that. I’ve told a couple people that one of the reasons that called the system, ROSHI,

is that I didn’t have the balls to call it “Maharishi”. I went to school on those folks, with my de- sign rules following the TM® model. The power of the mantra to organize the brain/mind/spirit interface.”

Q: What gave you the motivation for creating the ROSHI?

A: “What is meditation, really? While in Japan, in the ’60s, I asked why those monks sit like that all day. “It toughens you up.” Huh? Needless to say, that stuck with me, for twenty years. I couldn’t afford the other stuff, not even Hershel’s, so I designed my own. In late ’85, I bought an Amiga A1000. It was a perfect opportunity to teach myself effi- cient real-time programming, while putting all of my neurofeedback design rules into one program. It was a truly personal project that went commercial.”

Q: What aspects of your system (ROSHI) are unique, ie, what other NFB systems lack?

A: “First, there’s response time. When I first started writing the code, in 1988, `Visceral’ or *pre- conscious* control of a screen display was on my mind. I figured that the feedback had to be fast enough that the brain operator couldn’t trick it. I’ve received a few barbs about ROSHI’s response time not being that relevant. How would `they’ know, since `they’ don’t know how to do it?”

Q: Could you please explain, in simple terms so us neophytes can understand, what the ROSHI does and how an individual can learn how to operate it?

A: “When a person is deeply, deeply relaxed, into just “blackness”; from there, you use your tal- ent to coach the client to do the ROSHI General Practitioner Protocol [RGPP], or whatever mo- dality you choose to use. From this “space”, with the subject’s critical-logical mind is “quieted”, the client is learning to (Witness the training, rather than `trying to do’ the training. Learning to focus one’s attention, with the least amount of effort; the zone. From this “space”, the immune system, too, can do its “housekeeping”, as it is not being /disturbed/ by the noisy incoherent “conscious mind”. The Complex (adaptive), C (a), EEG coupled L&S protocol, appears to in- duce the brain towards focused attention, it appears to accelerate the boost of the brain’s me- tabolism, blood flow, enough that the subject is able to maintain awareness, during training, without falling to sleep; whereas the average person would have long wandered into zzz land. With this ability to induce the brain to “normalize” itself, through time, the brain begins to pro- duce the neurochemistry necessary maintain this “new” operating region. You can call it a “neuro-mantra”. This EEG driven/coupled protocol is a time domain kinda system. It uses par- tial wavelet/chaos stuff, as it adapts to whatever the raw EEG is doing, even up at subcortical brainstem speeds. With this wideband C(a) protocol, the brain becomes an active phase error detector. With the brain inside of this “closed loop”, phase corrections begin to take place. This takes energy, bloodflow. Wake up, wake up! Now, when the subject has approached this state of “samadhi”, quietude, the trainer can begin coaching to whatever NFB protocol is cho- sen. On the other hand, one can boost the performance of their tapes, CDs or whatever. This combination, along with your current TOVA, MMPI, Beck or whatever, makes for a most pow- erful training system that you’ll have, IMHO, of course ;)”

Q: I understand that you and Ray Wolfe have developed an interface for the ROSHI that allows for the synergistic integration of l/s stimulation. Can you tell us about it?

A: “Yes, indeed! About a year ago, my source for EEG amplifier boards “lost” the ability to deliver anymore of these boards to me.  The structure of the ROSHI(AVS) software is segmented into three parts. None of these three protocols “knows” that the other exists. It is left up to the trainer/clinician/Roshini to integrate them into any protocol they should decide to mock up, for their client’s situation. By moving just the C(a) subroutines onboard the EEG unit, this new EEG front-end gets to be operated as a stand-alone EEG coupled L&S system that can operate on top of, or with *any* BFB/NFB setup. As the serial port communications will be “open platform”, this will allow other “neuro- hackers” to do their programming thing. The ROSHI(AVS) software is a different kind of thing, I think. When coupled to the stand- alone ROSHI2 front-end, it becomes a full blown interhemispheric NFB training system. Briefly, regardless of training modality, it is always pushing the brain operator to be in synch. It brightens things up.”

Q: How often do you personally use the ROSHI? What are your personal goals for doing so? Do you incorporate other modalities while training (light/sound, tactile stimulation, etc.)?

A: “Myself, I do C(a), with EMDR. The ultimate goal of ROSHI is to vanish. I’m not a clini- cian or a trainer. Yes, ROSHI will drive magnetics and CES.”

Q: What’s your definition of the perfect eeg/neurofeedback instrument? If light/sound are part of it, what color LEDs would you use? What type sound stimulation?

A: “Heck, the ROSHI(AVS) NFB system, of course. I leave the choice of LED colors to the cli- nician. I use a simple beep, at training threshold. When I tell people to /make/ the tone beep, they can’t. But, when I instruct them to find a mind “space” where they can *allow* the feedback tone to happen, a little grin comes over their face and, for them, the concept of time begins to vanish; first order meditation. Two different sets of Tru-White® HemiStim type of LED frames are shipped with the system.”

Q: What considerations should someone new to NFB take into account when shopping for NFB equipment?

A: “This is a general response from an exhibit I attended, at Winter Brain, in Miami: “Roshi (tm?) and the Roshi Roshi (Chuck Davis) were present and, as usual, inundated with requests for demo’s. The new model of the Roshi, which runs independently of a computer, is going to be a really neat device. Can’t wait to get one. My Roshi(AVS) session really woke me up, in mid-afternoon, when presentations were putting me to sleep, and left me lucid well into the wee hours.” This recent report was from a Ph.D. clinician who had heard of the ROSHI(AVS), since ’95. From another clinician: “Oh yeah!! That’s what I love about ROSHI. If one is ready to go transpersonal, the ROSHI is ready to take you there.”. As usual, a person should look for price/performance.”

Q: Of all the research studies you have been involved with, is there one in particular that has left a lasting impression on you?

A: “The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation”, Evans-Wentz “Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression with the ROSHI” has been published, by D. Corydon Hammond, Ph.D., Vol 4(2), in the _Journal of Neurotherapy._ Being able to take a person from the deepest near suicidal depression, to peak performance, without drugs, and to outperform other protocols, is quite a reward for me.”

Q: What do you believe are the most important issues facing NFB today?

A: “Getting more public and HMO acceptance. Zero Prozac, zero Ritalin, please!”

Q: What do you see the future of NFB being?

A: “Strong. NFB is just beginning to look at expansion into more areas, the chiropractic, physical therapy, golf…”

Dealing with the pain of RA

Rheumatoid arthritis can cause prolonged discomfort and can be quite painful. My onset started about a year ago and I am grateful to have found a physician with an abundance of experience when dealing with RA. Centered mainly in my right hand and both feet, it has been another ‘getting old’ lifestyle change. My doctor put me on the correct medicine with the correct dosage and the pain has diminished greatly. However, there are plenty of days I wake up and realize my hand does not want to work my laptop’s keyboard and my daily walks are drastically shortened due to the swelling in my feet. It sucks. As one of the techs told me: “Getting old ain’t for wussies”. I couldn’t agree more.

DAVID Delight Pro w/ CES Mind Machine

DAVID Delight Pro w/ CES

So for those days when the meds aren’t quite enough or I have an abundance of computer work to do, I have found welcome relief by doing one 20 minute session on my DAVID Delight Pro light and sound machine by Mind Alive, Inc. The Delight Pro has 2 “Mood Brightner” sessions that are incredible. Instead of taking opiate-based (and addictive-potential) pain medication I use these two sessions for relief. And they work – usually up to four to six hours. My DAVID Delight Pro has virtually paid for itself a few times over just by the money I have saved from not having to purchase vicodin or some other over-priced medication.

Forget about your RA - use the Delight Pro and RELAX IN COMFORT!

Forget about your RA – use the Delight Pro and RELAX IN COMFORT!

If you have RA I highly recommend checking out the advantages of owning a DAVID Delight Pro. Visit Mindmachines.com. They have the lowest price, they ship to the United States and Canada via Fedex 2 Day service for free and should you have questions or concerns about the Delight Pro system you can call or email as Mindmachines.com is one of the few light and sound dealers that not only answer their phone, but also use the products they sell!

Copyright: Michael Landgraf for Mindmachines.com (2014) CA. All rights reserved.

Need an idea? Try this…

Acquire a DAVID Delight Plus or Delight Pro by Mind Alive. Your choice, they both have the same built-in sessions and feature light and sound stimulation. The difference between the two is the Delight Pro includes an extra modality: CES.

DAVID-Delight_Plus

DAVID-Delight Plus

Next, choose a light and sound session in the theta or alpha/theta range with a 15 to 30 minute length. Set the light intensity at a comfortable level (same with CES intensity if using the Pro) and have the audio stimulation at a volume just below the threshold of your hearing. You may not be consciously aware of the audio, but your mind hears it.

DAVID Delight Pro w/ CES Mind Machine

DAVID Delight Pro w/ CES

Listen to the same session once a day for five consecutive days then set your Delight Plus or Pro aside and wait two days. On that second day inspiration should hit. An idea should appear in your mind. It’s like the thought / idea was always there, just wasn’t able to see it.

image003

To some of you this may sound like a load of manure, but for over 20 years I have been using this technique to think of new markets to expand into, from law enforcement and the military to the educational and athletic communities. Success with pilot programs has followed along with increased awareness of the benefits offered through brainwave stimulation using the DAVID mind machines. The result: increased sales.

Copyright: Mindmachines.com (CA) 2014. All rights reserved.

 

ADD and ADHD

For those of you who are seeing a clinician utilizing eeg/neurofeedback (NFB) training for targeting ADD and ADHD symptoms realize it takes several visits, oftentimes 30 or more, to see significant gains in brainwave focus. With appointments running $75 per session and higher, our customers are incorporating the DAVID Alert ProAlert Pro mind machine into their NFB training. Most use their Alert Pro as an adjunctive modality at home to the NFB training they are receiving. Results indicate that this method increases their ability to achieve the desired brainwave state more easily, which in turn leads to better, more productive NFB training sessions.

ADD and ADHD affect people of all ages. Many struggle with other issues like depression, insomnia, anxiety and drug abuse. The DAVID Alert Pro by Mind Alive has specific sessions designed for left hemispheric, right hemispheric and whole brain stimulation. These sessions gently guide your brainwaves to a specific brainwave state, editing and reinforcing your neuropathways through pulsed light, sound and cranial-electro-stimulation, with session’s end leaving you relaxed, refreshed and internally invigorated.

Alert Pro

Alert Pro

The DAVID Alert Pro comes complete with: Tru-Vu OmniscreenTM Eyesets and Carry Case, high-quality stereo headphones, stereo patch cord, CES earclip Stim cable, 9v battery, ac adapter, comprehensive owners manual with Symptom Survey Checklist, HRV ready, and Mind States 2 pdf download.

 

Coming back from the dead: Part 4

Coming back from the dead:

Megabrain author Mike Hutchison writes new book

about his awakening & enlightenment Part 4

 

By Nicky Vanvalkenburgh

 

 

“Some people may say that this sounds stupid,” admits Hutchison. “Why would you want to turn off your thinking ability? Don’t knock it until you’ve tried it! When you are in unconditioned consciousness, you can switch on your mind instantly, anytime you want. There is total absence of thought, resting silently in the deep peace and overwhelming bliss of Consciousness.”

 

Hutchison provides more detail about his awakening and enlightenment his new book, which is tentatively titled, “The Great Adventure.” He says that this awakening has helped him cope with the chronic neurogenic pain that comes with being a quadriplegic.

“My doctors tell me that I’ve made the greatest progress of anyone in history who broke all those cervical bones simultaneously,” says Hutchison. He remains paralyzed, but gets by with helpers for getting dressed, bathing, cleaning and cooking meals.

Hutchison’s hands are also paralyzed, but he is able to use voice-activated software called

Dragon Speak. The software enables him to dictate into a microphone, so that his words appear on his computer monitor, where he can edit them.

 

“I’ve learned to spend much of my time in the void,” reflects Hutchison. “It is infinite in all directions, no beginning or end, no self and no ego, total emptiness, unending silence, and infinite space. This is where I spend most of my time, and it takes away my pain. After awhile, I figured that this pure total emptiness and silence— which is also pure total fullness because everything arises out of it— is God. I’m in this state of bliss much of the time, and I want to let others know that all is One and its nature is bliss.”

 

Hutchison says this bliss is with him all the time, even 10 years after his first Enlightenment experience. “I am still living in poverty, but I’m in Unconditioned Awareness much of the time, and that makes me the happiest man in the world,” he says.

Hutchison continues to work on his book, and is aiming for publication in 2011.

 

Mike Hutchison can be reached at mhutchisonnm@aol.com. Mike is also on Facebook.

Visit his homepage for his latest thoughts.

Writer Nicky VanValkenburgh welcomes your feedback at

Nickyv@bellsouth.net Check out her website, http:///

www.trainyourbraintransformyourlife.com/ which offers a 60-day homebased

brain training program for conquering Attention Deficit Disorder.

 

Article originally appeared in AVS Journal, Vol. 9, #1, copyright: Michael Landgraf, publisher. All rights reserved.

AVS Journal vol 9.1

 

Coming back from the dead: Part 3

Coming back from the dead:

Megabrain author Mike Hutchison writes new book

about his awakening & enlightenment  Part 3

 

By Nicky Vanvalkenburgh

 

 

Doctors told Hutchison that he would die soon. The 60-foot fall had broken almost all of his cervical vertebrae and damaged his spinal cord. The doctors spent hours meticulously reassembling his vertebrae, like a jigsaw puzzle. His spinal cord was fused together with titanium rods, and he was wrapped in a body cast from head to toe. “I was heavily dosed with pain killers and passed in and out of consciousness. I felt like a prisoner, encased in a skin-tight plastic cast that covered my entire torso, arms, and skull. It included two steel bars that ran from my chest to my chin. The steel bars pushed my chin and therefore my entire head backwards,” recalls Hutchison.

 

Hutchison also felt claustrophobic: “I couldn’t move or breathe; there was nothing I could do to escape this horrible feeling of panic.” The doctors had told him it would take at least four months to recover, and the only thing he could do was stare at the ceiling. Unable to interact with the outside world, Hutchison directed his thoughts inward.

 

“I spent much of my day in a state of pure bliss consciousness,” recalls Hutchison. “Was it escapism, or a clever use of higher states of consciousness? Whatever it was, it worked! This was one of my first steps in learning to use higher states of consciousness and the path leading upward toward the peak.”

 

Over the next four months, Hutchison started to remember the details of his accident:

“As memories seeped back into my mind, it became clear to me that the only way I could deal with this total paralysis— quadriplegia— was to return to Oneness. If there was anyway to recover, I had to use the powers of The One. This meant using my Oneness with all of being to reach Enlightenment. Was this possible for someone like me?”

 

Hutchison found that turning inward took away his feelings of panic, and replaced these negative emotions with peace and bliss: “I could turn off my mind and go into a state of no-mind, emptiness, nothingness, or unconditioned consciousness.”

 

Mike Hutchison can be reached at mhutchisonnm@aol.com. Mike is also on Facebook.

Visit his homepage for his latest thoughts.

Writer Nicky VanValkenburgh welcomes your feedback at

Nickyv@bellsouth.net Check out her website, http:///

www.trainyourbraintransformyourlife.com/ which offers a 60-day homebased

brain training program for conquering Attention Deficit Disorder.

 

Article originally appeared in AVS Journal, Vol. 9, #1, copyright: Michael Landgraf, publisher. All rights reserved.

AVS Journal vol 9.1

 

Coming back from the dead: Part 2

Coming back from the dead:

Megabrain author Mike Hutchison writes new book

about his awakening & enlightenment  Part 2

 

By Nicky Vanvalkenburgh

 

 

While running, Hutchison saw two husky men in the distance. “I could barely make them out through the snow, but they appeared to be talking with each other, and glancing at me. I realized that I’d seen these men before. They had been parked in a pickup truck at the end of my long driveway, where my dirt road turned into a paved road. I’d wondered who they were when I drove away from my house that afternoon. As I looked up at them in the thickness of the snowstorm it appeared that both of them were carrying heavy walking sticks or rifles.”

 

Hutchison says these men grabbed him and hurled him off a 60-foot icy bridge. “They sent me cart wheeling through the snowy air,” recalls Hutchison. “With a thunderous smack and jolt, I landed on a giant boulder in the water. I felt the bones in my spine getting crushed. My head also smashed against the boulders, and instantly I was paralyzed. As I slipped into the icy water, I felt myself die from hypothermia,” he recalls.

 

Downstream, Hutchison’s body was later discovered. He was underwater, and had been dead over an hour. Miraculously, Hutchison woke up in the hospital emergency room. Doctors resuscitated him with electrical shocks to his chest. Hutchison choked, sputtered and his heart started beating again. “I was alive, but I don’t remember much about this experience. It’s just a montage of disconnected scenes,” he said.

 

Still in the emergency room, Hutchison’s blood was so cold that doctors circulated his blood through a warming unit and then pumped the warm blood back into his body.

When Hutchison was warm enough to operate on, the doctors discovered there was spinal cord damage: “They found an incredible mess of broken and crushed bones, like one of those long multi-car smash ups on the freeway, with cars turned over, flipped up on top of each other, a scene of total chaos.

 

Mike Hutchison can be reached at mhutchisonnm@aol.com. Mike is also on Facebook.

Visit his homepage for his latest thoughts.

Writer Nicky VanValkenburgh welcomes your feedback at

Nickyv@bellsouth.net Check out her website, http:///

www.trainyourbraintransformyourlife.com/ which offers a 60-day homebased

brain training program for conquering Attention Deficit Disorder.

 

 

Article originally appeared in AVS Journal, Vol. 9, #1, copyright: Michael Landgraf, publisher. All rights reserved.

AVS Journal vol 9.1

Coming back from the dead

Coming back from the dead:

Megabrain author Mike Hutchison writes new book

about his awakening & enlightenment

 

By Nicky Vanvalkenburgh

 

About 11 years ago, Megabrain author Mike Hutchison was almost killed by a house fire and fall from an icy bridge. Pronounced dead on arrival, Hutchison stunned paramedics and doctors by coming back to life and breathing again. Today, he is a quadriplegic, and is writing a book about the enlightenment that resulted from his experience.

Hutchison suspects the fire was set by arsonists who doused his home with kerosene and set it aflame. The fire destroyed his unpublished book manuscripts, computer and EEG equipment, plus valuable research that Hutchison been working on about peak performance in the brain.

 

“I woke up in the hospital with a huge tube in my throat feeding me oxygen. I had severe burns and smoke inhalation damage,” said Hutchison, in a private interview with AVS.

“I was in intensive care, with respiratory therapists teaching me to inhale and exhale through various machines. The breathing tube felt like it had taken root inside me. It took two nurses and two aides holding me down to finally yank it out. It felt like they were pulling out not only my lungs, but my entire insides.”

 

Later discharged from the hospital, Hutchison tried to rehabilitate himself by running.

“At first, I could only go about a hundred yards before feeling like I would faint or puke. I was exhausted, wheezing and coughing up ugly crap,” said Hutchison.

 

“My life depended on coming up with a new book, which meant I had to get back to my running, so I was tenacious. Slowly over the next few weeks, I began to increase my distances to 2 miles, 4 miles, 6 miles, and gradually my lung capacity increased. Fortunately, I had been in really good physical shape before the fire and was able to make a rapid comeback. After just a few weeks of running, I took a 12 mile run along a hidden trail through the mountains, and back across the river.”

 

 

Mike Hutchison can be reached at mhutchisonnm@aol.com. Mike is also on Facebook.

Visit his homepage for his latest thoughts.

Writer Nicky VanValkenburgh welcomes your feedback at

Nickyv@bellsouth.net Check out her website, http:///

www.trainyourbraintransformyourlife.com/ which offers a 60-day homebased

brain training program for conquering Attention Deficit Disorder.

 

Article originally appeared in AVS Journal, Vol. 9, #1,  copyright: Michael Landgraf, publisher. All rights reserved.

AVS Journal vol 9.1

RGB Hex Triplet Color Chart

RGB Hex Triplet Color Chart

Many of you who use the ALLcolor Visual System have asked if there is a chart available
that will tell exactly what percentage of red, green and/or blue is needed to attain a specific
color. For this reason, we have provided the following information:
RGB chart from ACVS Owners Guide for Fall 2006
The following is an explanation of the RGB color codes:
Using an RGB Hex Triplet chart and the numbers that appear next to each color will enable you
to set the ALLcolor control console ‘sliders’ at the exact setting to achieve the specific colors
you want.
Colors are identified by using six digits: 2 for red, 2 for green and 2 for blue. The numbers must
be in RED. GREEN, BLUE order to be correct.
[ ] RR GG BB (RR=red; GG=green; BB=blue)
FF = 255 = 100%
CC = 204 = 80%
99 = 153 = 60%
66 = 102 = 40%
33 = 51 = 20%
00 = 0 = 0%
As an example, for “Brown” the number next to it in the color chart is: 996600. This tells you
the following: 99 (red at 60%) 66 (green at 40%) 00 (blue at 0%).
Should you have further questions or concerns regarding RGB-based colors, please contact Michael
Landgraf.

Light, Sound and the 515 MP3: “Not Just Another Sleep Aid”

Light, Sound and the 515 MP3: “Not Just Another Sleep Aid” 

Virtual 515 MP3

“My wife has had a severe insomnia problem for about 7 years. We’ve tried everything:herbs, light therapy, over-the-counter sleeping aids, melatonin, and a lot more. We’ve read experts’

books on what causes insomnia, and we’ve followed the guidelines for trying to resolve
it. My wife is a very light sleeper, and once she awakens in the middle of the night has serious
difficulty getting back to sleep.
At your suggestion we purchased a light and sound instrument and also the 
515 MP3. We’ve had

more success than with anything else we’ve used in the past. Sometimes its difficult to find the
right frequency to help her get to sleep, but we nearly always succeed, and sometimes in a very
short time period. I’ve done some novice programming of my own and have found that a 3-
minute ramp from low beta to the delta-theta range with a 2 Hz offset works very well. We’ve
also had success with the delta track on the 515 MP3, and with several of the programmed sessions
in our light and sound instrument.
We appreciate your help and recommendation to use these tools, with which we hope to totally
resolve the insomnia problem with more practice. Incidentally, I also find that using the alpha
track of the 515 MP3 just feels good throughout the day while I’m working at the office.”
– H. E., Oklahoma

AVS Journal 4.3