FAQ Glossary

FAQ’s & Glossary
WHAT IS A MIND MACHINE? Utilizing light and sound pulses at a
specified frequency, these machines stimulate the brain wave activity of the
user, leading the user’s mind from normal waking consciousness to a variety
of altered states of consciousness.
WHAT ARE THESE STATES AND HOW DO THEY DIFFER FROM NORMAL? The specific frequency ranges and their associated mental states are as follows:
BETA 13-30 Hz: Normal waking state; attention directed to surroundings. Includes
agitated, restless/”monkey mind” states which are especially amenable to
treatment with light and sound stimulation.
ALPHA 8-13 Hz: Relaxed, tranquil, daydreaming, “inward awareness” state.
THETA 4-8 Hz: Borderline sleep; meditation state with access to the
unconscious; creativity, learning, inspiration.
DELTA 1-4 Hz: Deep, dreamless sleep; trance state.
WHO CAN BENEFIT FROM THIS TECHNOLOGY? Light and sound can enhance the
work of physicians, psychologists, therapists, body workers, any harried
professional, as well as the individual experimenter who wishes to explore
altered states of consciousness, awareness expansion and sensory
THERE ARE SO MANY MACHINES TO CHOOSE FROM, WHICH ONE SHOULD I BUY? All mind machines do basically the same thing; put you in your choice of
brainwave state (beta, alpha, theta, delta). The first thing to consider is: do you like to fiddle around with technology, or generally never use the
advance features of the equipment you buy?” If you like to fiddle around,
then look at the machines with the most features, otherwise look at the
minimal feature machines. Now go by your budget.
WHAT HAPPENS DURING A SESSION? With special lightframes over your
closed eyes and headphones over your ears, you are immersed in colorful
geometric patterns and entrancing sounds. The light and sound pulse rate
shifts from state to state as the session progresses; brain wave activity
will follow the pulse rate of the mind machine and fall into synch with the
WHAT IS ACHIEVED BY BEING IN THESE STATES OF MIND? The following are some of the areas being explored by users of these machines: psychological stress
relief, deep relaxation, assistance in falling asleep, memory improvement,
increased learning, stabilizing emotions, increased intellectual focus,
lucid dreaming, substance abuse issues, sensory
stimulation, increased physical energy. While some of these benefits have
been substantiated by research studies, these machines are experimental and
results will vary from person to person.

HOW IMPORTANT IS THE SOUND? The entrainment mechanism is both visual and
aural. Sound and music have been used for centuries in may cultures to
manipulate consciousness. Drums, chants, and environmental sounds like wind
and rain all provide strong mental pictures and associations. Pleasant
sounds are much more enjoyable and relaxing than one-note beeps or tones,
such as those used by other machines. Every system Mindmachines.com offers  incorporates the most sophisticated sound generation circuitry of other light/sound devices.
WHAT ARE “BINAURAL BEATS”? Binaural beat generation is a sound feature on
most Mindmachines.com products. Using two sound synthesizers in the audio
circuit, and by specifying slightly different sound frequencies for the left
and right channels, it is possible to induce a third frequency which is the
difference between the left and right in the mind of the user. This is known
as a binaural beat frequency generation. The perceived beat frequency is
especially useful as an entrainment tool when paired with pulsing lights.
diodes–LED’s–are solid state devices that convert small amounts of electrical energy into light. They can be switched on and off much faster than incandescent lights, producing the crisp strobe-like pulses which have been shown to be most effective at inducing patterns of brainwave activity. They also create very pure colors–again an important factor in the alteration of consciousness and brainwave activity.
White LED or TENcolor lightframes are the best. An advantage when
working with the public is that the color white has no color associations
attached to it; it is clean. People’s personally experiences in life
radically filter one’s response to specific colors. If someone had very
negative experiences as a child and their room was painted green; green is
not going to have the traditional healing effect for that person. It is nice
to have color choices when working with the public to let them decide.
Basically otherwise, the warm colors (red, orange, yellow) have an
excitatory (stimulating) effect; and the cool colors (blue and green) have
an inhibitory (calming)effect.
With Open-Eyed (peripheral stimulation) lightframes, you can experience a l/s session with your eyes open, enabling you to work on the task at hand while receiving the benefits of a session. This approach will definitely keep you focused on your work!
Activation frequencies are used in session design to “turn on” or guide the participant to specific states of awareness, as in beta, alpha, theta, delta.
ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has identified and defined this disorder. According to the American Psychiatric Association (1980), ADD is indicated when children display inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and sometimes hyperactivity for their mental and chronological age. ADD may be diagnosed as with or without hyperactivity. Approximately 20% of the population will be diagnosed as having ADD.
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) is a behavioral condition in which children have difficulties paying attention and focusing on tasks. This common disorder begins in early childhood and can continue into adulthood. If not recognized and treated, it can cause problems at home, in school, at work and with relationships.
ALLcolor Visual System is the most complete lightframe accessory ever made. It is the color therapy solution for your brainwave machine or as a stand alone color-therapy device. The ALLcolor Visual System™ is a user friendly, effective color therapy system that will please both the professional color therapist as well as the novice home-user. The ALLcolor Visual System is a color therapy device that delivers user adjustable colored light to the eyes or skin. A switch of a button turns the color stimulation from constant to pulsed. Just sit back, wear the glasses and close your eyes… you will see the color through your eyelids. This dual-use color therapy package can be connected to any light and sound machine to add a new color-therapy dimension to your light and sound experience. One set of glasses… thousands of vivid colors coupled with the brightest adjustable light stimulation ever offered. The first RGB – based LEDchip lightframe ever made.
Alpha brainwave frequencies are associated with being relaxed, yet mentally alert. The frequency pattern ranges between 8-12Hz.
AudioStrobe signals are recorded on a music CD at a high, inaudible frequency, to control the lights in a light and sound machine. An AudioStrobe decoder detects these signals and uses them to drive the lights of the lightframe’s LEDs, absolutely in sync with the music.
AV3X  The Digital Meditation® Experience. You will become deeply relaxed  when you watch AV3X®.  The original TV Mind Machine and most powerful Meditation DVD to be created. AV3x® Digital Meditation® DVD Videos will have you feeling deep relaxation within minutes. We all know how beneficial meditation is for us, but let’s face it, most of us don’t have time to learn how to meditate.  AV3X® Digital Meditation DVDs are not “how to meditate” videos. You do not need to learn how to do anything. All you need to do is to watch the DVD on your TV set. Created in it’s entirety by Christopher Oliver.
AVS (Audio Visual Stimulation) devices influence your state of mind using specially designed light and sound stimulation. Also referred to as light and sound or mind machines. Flickering lights and pulsating sound have been used for centuries to influence moods, from music for relaxation to adrenaline-raising dances around the tribal fire. AVS systems have the advantage that the stimulation is more controlled and better designed for its purpose. They are very effective relaxation tools, assist in meditation and can aid the learning process.
AVS Journal is the only free downloadable magazine devoted to current mind machine / AVS (Auditory / Visual Stimulation) research, utilization and product information. AVS is also referred to as light and sound stimulation. Published annually, with worldwide readership, the AVS Journal contains current mind machine information geared towards personal as well as professional use. Visit www.Mindmachines.com for free downloads.
Beats are amplitude variations that result when pure tones spaced close together in pitch are mixed. When tone pitches are far enough apart, the result of mixing tones is consonance (sounds okay). As the mixed tones get within an octave of each other, they sound good only if the tones form good chords. When they get still closer, the effect shifts to beats. A trigonometric formula, long since forgotten by many, expresses the addition of two pure tones as:
sin(a) + sin(b) = 2*(sin((a+b)/2)*cos((a-b)/2)).
Interpreting the formula, beats are perceived as the average pitch (a+b)/2 modulated (pulsed) at the difference frequency (a-b). If you are paying close attention and noticed the disappearing 1/2, cos(a-b)/2 has two amplitude peaks per cycle, so the modulation is perceived to be at frequency (a-b) not (a-b)/2. When you listen to a mixture of slowly changing tones on a dual binaural beat instrument, fascinating beat effects are heard.
Beta brainwave frequencies are associated with are normal waking state. Beta frequencies range between 13-34Hz.
Binaural beats result when pure tones at different beats are simultaneously heard by both ears. For instance, say one tone of 200Hz is heard predominantly by the left ear. Another tone of 190Hz is heard predominantly through the right ear.  These two pure tones are heard and processed separately, depending upon their arrival time, by our auditory center. If these two tones are of the same pitch, the resulting sound will be perceived as being inside our head. But if both tones have slightly different pitches, the resulting effect will sound more like a back and forth movement. Binaural beats result when pure tones at slightly different pitches are heard by the two ears. The effect is different from a mixed tone beat phenomenon, because the tones are heard and processed separately by the auditory apparatus. Our mechanism for localizing the source of a sound depends on detecting differences of arrival times of the sound waveform — two tones of the same pitch but at different phases will be perceived as being inside the head, closer to the ear in which the sine wave peaks first. Tones of slightly different pitches appear to have constantly shifting phase, and the source appears to move back and forth within the head at the rate of the difference of the pitches. This is commonly but inaccurately described as “hearing the difference frequency”. You can experiment with this effect with a light and sound machine that generates controlled sine wave binaural beats.
Biofeedback is a process by which participants must generate the targeted brainwave with no outside stimulation.
Biofeed-in is another term used to describe how the entrainment process of light and sound stimulation is performed. The opposite of biofeedback.
Brainwaves are the electrical wave patterns generated by our brain. Our brain contains roughly 100 billion neurons that function by generating and passing these electrical signals. The sum of all these electrical signals and their activity can be recorded and observed via an EEG instrument. These brain waves appear as irregular yet repetitive “wavy lines” that are a mixture of frequencies ranging from below 1Hz to more than 40Hz. The predominance of a certain brain wave frequency is what determines what brain state or state of awareness an individual is experiencing at any given moment. Brain waves are the voltage patterns generated by the brain. The brain contains some 100 billion neurons which operate by generating and passing electrical signals. The summation of all this electrical activity results in signals that can be detected and recorded outside the brain. Different brain wave patterns have been found to be associated with different states of awareness.
Cautions when used as a medical disclaimer: For individuals, AVS / light and sound stimulation has been proven to be extremely save and effective. However, whether knowingly or not, there are a small percentage of individuals with undiagnosed photosensitive epilepsy who experience their first seizure when exposed to pulsing light. Flashing traffic lights, video games, emergency vehicle lights, and entertainment strobe lights have all initiated seizures in such individuals. Therefore, if you experience any uneasiness or nausea during your first light and sound experience, take off the glasses immediately and stop your light and sound session. Consult your physician for a diagnosis and proper medical prevention. Also, seek your doctor’s supervision before using a light and sound device if you: have ever experienced any form of seizure disorder or epilepsy; have ever suffered any type of head injury or concussion; are presently or have recently taken prescription or illegal psychoactive drugs, such as barbiturates, tranquilizers, or stimulants of any type; are sensitive to bright or pulsing light, or find that such light can produce headaches or other discomforts; have a pacemaker or suffer from any form of cardiovascular problems including cardiac arrhythmia’s or other heart disorders; have a history of mental disorders and/or hallucinations; suffer from any major health problem. No medical claims are made for using light and sound products. Do not use a light/sound machine to try to heal yourself. They are a powerful self-improvement tool and can help you achieve deep states of relaxation, but they can in no way replace the knowledge and expertise your physician or other health care professional provides.
CES (Cranio-electrical Stimulation) was developed in the Soviet Union in the late 1940s and has since been used by millions of people all over the world. Research demonstrates that CES produces a mild stimulation in the hypothalamic area of the brain, resulting in balancing neurotransmitter activity (in particular Beta Endorphin and Norepinephrine). The effects achieved are similar to that of a “jogger’s high”.
Chakra frequencies are associated with our inner power, referred to in eastern religions as the kundalini. These frequencies can activate certain centers along the base of the spine upwards to the brain. These frequencies are not the natural sounds associated with the activation of chakras, but do an excellent imitation, resulting in very beautiful and powerful experiences.
Color Pulse A feature that has the device blink the lights to any music source. It creates a pleasant experience because most individuals use it to blink the lights to their favorite music. This however, is not very effective for other than entertainment purposes, because music in general is not composed with the relaxation frequency and the timing involved that is used in designing light and sound sessions.
Chords are combinations of tones that (hopefully) sound harmonious. Harmony occurs when the fundamental pitches of the tones are in ratios of small integers, such as 2/1 (octave), 5/3 (sixth), 3/2 (fifth), 4/3 (major third), or 6/5 (minor third). Most people hear tones closer than a minor third as dissonant. When tones get still closer in frequency, beats occur.
Consciousness management technique refers to the overall process of light and sound technology.
Consciousness self-regulation technique refers to the overall process of biofeedback.
Delta brainwave frequencies are associated with sleep. These frequencies range between .5-3Hz.
Downloading is the process of transferring sessions from a PC computer to a light and sound/sound only instrument. Download is the process of sending sessions from a PC computer over a COM port to a light/sound system. This allows new sessions to be installed easily.
Dual monaural beats occur when two closely spaced pitches are mixed in the same ear, beats are heard at the difference of pitches.
Dual independent binaural beats occur by running two binaural beat generators simultaneously. Two tones plus two binaural beat offsets are heard by both ears, for a total of four tones and four offsets (the two left offset tones against both right offset tones). The results produce very complex and dynamic frequency variations that may seem confusing, but sound really great.
Duty cycle impacts the sensation of light and sound stimulation. It refers to how long the light or sound stimulation cycle is on. For instance, if the duty cycle is set at 30%, that means the stimulation is on for 30% of the cycle and off for 70%. Duty cycle refers to the portion of a stimulation cycle that the light or sound is “on”. For example, a duty cycle of 40% means that the stimulation is on 40% of the cycle and off for 60% of the cycle. Some light and sound machines provide duty cycle control and it does have an impact on the resulting sensation.
EEG / Neurofeedback monitors brainwaves. It is immediately useful for applications in research, education, recreation, hobby, self-awareness, art, performance and brainwave-controlled systems. You can digitally record, store, process, display, and work with brainwaves using any PC with Windows and a spare serial port. You will be able to monitor and display waveform characteristics such as alpha, beta, delta, or theta energy, the amount of symmetry in the brainwaves, or set up the system to respond to your brainwaves by creating displays, sounds, or other effects. This is useful for many applications in which there is a need to record and study brainwaves, to play games using brainwaves, or to use brainwaves to control a system, including interactive simulations and virtual reality displays.
Entrainment is the method light and sound/sound only instruments use to gently guide your mind to desired states of consciousness.
Euphoria sessions target the activation of the left brain hemisphere while leaving the right brain hemisphere inactive. The approach in session design is aimed at producing a sense of well-being.
Features of light/sound systems include the number and variety of the built-in sessions, the number and range of the controlled stimulation parameters (frequency, volume, intensity, tone, pitch, phase, duty cycle), starting and stopping sessions with gently ramped volume and intensity, an audio synthesizer with sine wave sound, whether or not the system permits the user to create custom sessions, whether or not sessions can be downloaded from a personal computer. All of these features should be considered when deciding on a personal light/sound system.
Fill-in-blanks is a technique of creating light and sound programs by selecting one of a number of available program profiles, and specifying the frequency range and control options to be used. Thus a custom program can be created with four menu selections.
515 Sound only stimulation. Christopher Oliver and Michael Landgraf, developers of the 515 Dual Independent Binaural Beat Generator, present a new concept in mind machines: Virtual 515 Mindmachine CD. This audio CD turns any CD player into a powerful mind machine. The Virtual 515 Mindmachine CD contains the same sessions as the original 515 hardware unit in a format called LoopLogic(TM). There are 5 LoopLogic(TM) sessions on the disc: 1. Energize (Beta) 10:09; 2. Relax (Alpha) 20:16;
3. Learning (Theta) 10:10; 4. Visualization (Alpha/Theta) 7:10; 5. Sleep (Delta) 26:10. For more information visitwww.mindmachines.com.
Fossil Phil helps children understand what light and sound is all about through stories and pictures. For all of you who have children that enjoy coloring books, “Light, Sound & Fun” is a FREE 49 page coloring book featuring Fossil Phil that will provide hours of coloring entertainment for your children. It is something Fossil Phil wanted to make available for kids and is an excellent way for your children to have fun and learn about the advantages of using light and sound technology! For more information about Fossil Phil, contact Michael Landgraf at: www.mindmachines.com.
Frequency refers to the primary rate of pulsed light (visual) and pulsed tone (auditory) stimulation produced by a light and sound session. It is how fast the lights and sound are at one moment on, then at the next moment off. In other words, how fast each form of stimulation is pulsating. In terms of binaural beats, frequency refers to how often the amplitude is being modulated. Light and sound sessions utilize the same frequency range as the brain, i.e. ,brain waves. Frequency is properly the rate at which any periodic event repeats, but in light and sound machines it is used more specifically to refer to the primary rate of visual and auditory stimulation — to the eyes, it is how fast the lights are flickering, to the ears, it is how often the sound is pulsed on and off, (pulsed tones) or how often the amplitude is modulated (binaural beats). Frequency, like pitch, is measured in Hertz. The frequencies of stimulation in light and sound systems are in the brain wave frequency range.
Frequency Following Response refers to the brain’s natural tendency to mimic or resonate the same frequencies generated by outside stimuli. This is the process light and sound instruments utilize for entraining the brain.
Gamma brainwave frequencies are associated with being highly motivated and mentally alert. These frequency patterns start at 35Hz and increase.
Ganzfeld in German means “all-field”. Refers to gazing into a snowy-white background as a technique for achieving altered states. Ganzfeld is an effect discovered by German scientists in the 1930s, in which the eyes are exposed to a totally uniform visual field, with no edges, color changes, or movement. This can be achieved by looking up at the sky on a clear, cloudless day, or with very specially constructed illuminated glasses. The circuitry in the brain that is constantly scanning the visual field for edges and movement finds absolutely nothing, and shortly shuts visual sensation off, as the eye responds primarily to changes. Soon the subject cannot tell if his eyes are open or closed, and altered states of consciousness result.
Gel filter The cheapest method for acquiring a variety of colors for your light and sound system. Color filter gels are color overlays that fit between your white LED lightframes and eyes. You can choose from a variety of colors to suit your goals and moods. Simply use any color filter gel in front of your white lightframes. That’s all there is to it. You use your AVS machine in tandem with these gels. Set your light glasses on any table top or desk and put any color gel right in front of the white LEDs. Use your light and sound  machine in manual mode so you can change the frequency to whatever makes you comfortable. You can purchase gel filter sheets in dozens of color varieties from your local photography store.
Gentle on/off refers to starting a session by slowly ramping on the sound volume and light intensity, and ending a session by slowly ramping them back off. This feature makes the transition into and out of a session more pleasant, and prevents sudden jerky endings that can destroy the effect of a session.
GSR stands for galvanic skin resistance. It measures the variations of your skin’s sweat gland and pore size activity, both of which are controlled by the sympathetic nervous system. It is a measurement of your physical reactions to states of stress and relaxation.
Harmonic frequencies are basically multiples of each other. It is believed these frequencies act more in agreement or unison with each other than other frequency combinations.
Harmonic multiple frequencies are the result of multiplying a number by a lower offset frequency to produce a higher offset frequency. It is a technique used in designing binaural beat sessions.
hemiStim  lightframes utilize the left and right visual field LEDs in a pattern that targets the left and/or right hemisphere independently. Different frequency stimulation of the hemispheres is thus possible. The hemiStim lightframes allow the left or the right visual field LEDs on both eyes to light simultaneously thus stimulating the hemispheres independently. The glasses are used with your eyes open, or the effect is lost. Most widely used with EEG equipment.

Hertz refers to cycles per second, or how often something repeats itself within each second. Named for Heinrich Hertz (1857-94). Hertz is the primary measurement of sound, but is fast losing popularity to amplitude. Hertz used to be called “cycles per second”, meaning the number of times a repetitive event occurred per second. Then someone noticed that physicist Heinrich Hertz had no measurement unit named after him, so he was appropriately immortalized.

History: The effects of flickering light stimulation have been known for a long time. Ancient shamans knew that flickering games could result in hallucinations. Around 200 A.D., Ptolemy noted that the flickering of sunlight seen through the spokes of a spinning wheel could cause patterns and colors to appear to the observer, and could produce a feeling of lightheadedness and euphoria. In modern times (1940’s and 50’s) neuroscientist W. Gray Walter used a strobe light to create flickering light stimulation and noted that the brain wave pattern of the whole cortex was changed, not just the area associated with vision. Experimentation in the 1960’s and 70’s showed that adding pulsing sound enhanced the experience. The invention of the microprocessor made it possible for inexpensive light and sound devices to be produced, with hundreds of thousands of people owning instruments.
Integration in regards to light and sound session design refers to utilizing frequencies in specific brain states that aid the participant in accepting and incorporating what surfaces into the conscious mind during session experiences.
Intensity is how bright the light stimulation is. Intensity refers to the brightness of the light stimulation.
Just scale is a seldom used musical scale that has seven notes per octave, and is designed to make chords relative to the base of the octave come out correctly. The Just scale is used in dual binaural beat machines to get better chords, and also because the integer pitches of the Just scale make integer binaural beat offsets work better.
Lightframes are eye frames, eye wear or eye goggles with light sources mounted in the front inside portion of the frame. These are the pulsating lights that make up the light stimulation of a light and sound session. The lights themselves can be LEDchips consisting of red-green-blue built-in LEDs within a microchip; LEDs which are color-emitting diodes or white incandescent light bulbs. The LED light frames are utilized with eyes closed because the eyelids actually diffuse the lights and heighten the session experience. White incandescent light frames have a translucent mask between the light bulbs and eyes, which acts to diffuse the pulsating stimulation, enabling the user to
experience the session with eyes open. Recently, clear eye frames have been produced with low intensity LED’s that enable the user to experience light and sound sessions with eyes open, enabling the user to simultaneously experience the session while studying, working at computer workstations or during beta EEG/neurofeedback training.
Light & Sound Designer is a software package that allows sessions to be designed in a spreadsheet format on a PC computer. Graphically displayed and stored on disk format, this software is then downloaded into all downloadable light and sound systems.
Light & Sound Librarian helps organize sessions, sets up downloads for multiple sessions and prints session lists for all downloadable light and sound systems.
LoopLogic enables the user to determine session length of the 515 CD or LoopLogic CD by programming the CD player to repeat a given track. For example, programming the CD player to play track 4 of the 515 CD (Visualization – 7 min. 10 sec) three times in a row will create a visualization session that is 21:30 long.
Lucid dreaming refers to being aware that you are dreaming while you are experiencing your dreams.
Mind Tools is one of the most prestigious manufacturers of light and sound instruments providing the public with quality systems and cost-effective accessories. See www.Mindmachines.com for complete product line.
Mind Machines are devices that entrain your mind to allow you access to different states of awareness. Utilizing light and sound for stimulation, these instruments are mainly used for relaxation and learning. Mind Machines are devices that influence your state of mind using specially designed light and sound stimulation. Flickering lights and pulsating sound have been used for centuries to influence moods, from music for relaxation to adrenaline-raising dances around a tribal fire. Light and sound systems have the advantage that the stimulation is more controlled and better designed for its purpose.
Musical scale is how the sound frequencies are chosen as notes for playing music. Musical scale refers to the way in which particular sound frequencies are picked as the notes to be used in playing music. An octave is a musical interval with a frequency ratio of 2/1 (e.g. 220 to 440 Hertz). Different cultures and musical traditions have used many different ways of dividing an octave. Western (this is Western as opposed to Eastern, not Country Western) music is mostly based on the tempered scale, with 12 notes per octave and equal frequency ratios between adjacent notes.
Neurofeedback incorporates EEG instrumentation with biofeedback to heighten the participant’s ability for achieving targeted brainwave frequencies. See EEG / Neurofeedback.
Octave is an interval between notes that has a frequency ratio of 2/1. The tempered scale has 12 total notes, seven natural notes and five sharps and flats. Octave is a interval between notes that has a 2/1 frequency ratio (e.g. 220 to 440 Hertz). In the tempered scale there are 12 total notes in an octave, seven “white key” or natural notes and five “black key” sharps and flats.
Offset frequency occurs with dual binaural beats. It is the frequency the mind actually hears when stimulated by two different frequencies. For example, the mind is stimulated by a frequency of 200Hz and simultaneously by 190Hz. The mind subtracts the difference, which is 10Hz. This is the frequency actually heard by the mind and is a frequency associated with the alpha brainwave state.
Phase is used for timing the relationship between light and sound stimulation- between the lightframes and headphones. Phase is the timing relationship between the different stimulation channels –the two eyes and the two ears. When pulsed sounds are selected, there are six phase settings available.
Pitch is the frequency of sound used for auditory stimulation and is thought of in terms of bass (the low notes) through soprano (the high notes). Pitch refers to the frequency of sound stimulation and is perceived as “low notes” (bass) to “high notes” (soprano).
Ramping is a gradual method of changing (either increasing or decreasing) the parameters of light and sound stimulation when designing a session. Ramping refers to changing a stimulation parameter gradually so that “jumps” are not perceptible. Most light and sound systems can ramp frequency, but some still “jump” in 1 or 2 Hertz steps. Fewer can ramp volume and intensity. Listen to a dual binaural beat session before deciding it is not important to ramp pitch.
Schumann Resonance Frequency is 7.83Hz and is referred to as the frequency of the earth.
Sessions are built-in, downloadable or custom made sequences of changing light and sound stimulation for specific purposes, such as relaxation, alertness, sleep, etc. Sessions typically last from 15 to 45 minutes, and some systems allow the user to vary the running time. While a session is running, the session programming controls most of the operation of the system, although some features may be left to operator control. The variety and quality of the built-in sessions on a light and sound system has a profound effect on how well the machine will work for you.
Sine wave sound  are pure tones consisting of only one frequency. When you play a musical instrument, the notes have a fundamental frequency and many harmonics. The result is not a sine wave, but on most instruments the result sounds pleasing. On a light and sound system that does not have sine wave sound, the alternative is usually square wave sound (on or off), not because it sounds good  but because it’s easy to make on a computer. Mixed tone beats and binaural beats do not work as well on non-sine-wave sound either
Soft on/off refers to beginning a session by gradually increasing  (ramping) the light and sound stimulation and ending a session by gradually decreasing the light and sound stimulation. This enables the transition into and out of a session to be much more pleasant, without any sudden jerks.
Soundscapes is a name commonly referred to digital “nature sounds”. A small nature sound bit (rain, forest, ocean, waterfalls etc.) is recorded on a chip and repetitively played back. Although nature sounds are not designed with certain frequencies in mind, the repetitive sound and light pattern are soothing and work well for quiet entertainment.
Symmetron brings to you a unique multi-phase wave experience. The motion is designed to provide the optimal environment for personal growth and relaxation. The Symmetron utilizes an exclusive movement that is developmentally significant and delightfully pleasant. The NASA-style “gravity reduction” coupled with a variable speed orbital platform creates a personally relaxing rhythm that simulates an unparalleled sense of weightlessness. Symmetron NeuroWave is the ultimate in tactile stimulation and motion. Visit www.mindmachines.com for details.
Tactile stimulation are specifically designed frequencies that produce physical sensations. When utilized with light and sound, this experience creates a complete “mind/body” experience.
Tempered scale is a musical scale utilized in modern western music. There are twelve notes per octave with a constant frequency ratio between adjacent notes (the twelfth root of 2, or about 1.059). This approach has advantages in playing music in different keys, but does not make chords come out as well as they could. An interesting alternative is the Just scale.
TENcolors  get white, blue, red, green, indigo, yellow, aqua, as well as 3 more subtle color variations: golden, violet, and rose quartz all through one lightframe. TENcolors!™ Lightframes are for personal light and sound users. TENcolors!™ feature independent left eye / right eye color selection and connects directly to any Common Power (CP) or Common Ground (CG) light and sound instrument. Created by Michael Landgraf and Chris Williams, TENcolors utilize an RGB-based LEDchip. Sold through www.mindmachines.com.
Theta brainwave frequencies are associated with states of deep relaxation, rapid learning and creativity. These frequencies range between 4-7Hz.
Thwack is a little known technique that utilizes gamma light, sound and tactile stimulation, along with motion, to achieve an immediate state of extreme alertness and motivation. Created by David McLaughlin, we dare not say this approach has any medical or theraputic value, but possesses immense entertainment value. However, our research indicates it has theraputic potential and does assist in achieving maximum performance in athletic endeavors.

Tone is the kind of sound stimulation used in light and sound sessions. Examples of tone are: pulsed tone, pulsed surf, alternating tone/surf, pulsed chord, binaural beats, binaural beats with a metronome tick at a specific frequency, dual binaural beats and dual binaural beats with surf. Tone refers to the type of sound stimulation used.

Visuals are the wavy, shifting color patterns perceived when observing the pulsating lights during a light and sound session. These patterns are the result of the interaction of the light pulse rate of your instrument to the sensing/processing rate of your eyes. Visuals refer to the shifting, colored patterns perceived when you look at the flickering lights on a light and sound system. The patterns are optical illusions caused by the interaction of the flicker rate with the sensing and processing rate of your eyes and brain. You may have seen a child’s top with radial black lines, that when spun, gives the appearance of changing colors. That is a similar effect. The visual images from a light and sound system can be very impressive and contribute a lot to the enjoyment of using the system. A session that creates a good light show is imaginatively said to have “excellent visuals”.

Volume refers to the loudness of the sound stimulation.